World Backup Day – are your important files backed up?

Today is World Backup Day! If your storage system fails, at work or at home, any valuable data could be lost for good. It’s an essential task, but can be as simple or as complex as you choose. Here’s our best practice for backing up your data.

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Flickr’s new ‘photo experience’ leaves beta, offers improved design, faster browsing

Flickr’s new "photo experience" leaves the beta stage and is now standard for all users. Which is good, because it’s much better and faster by at least 20 times, according to Flickr.

The post Flickr’s new ‘photo experience’ leaves beta, offers improved design, faster browsing appeared first on Digital Trends.

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Carl Sagan’s Original Cosmos Series on YouTube: The 1980 Show That Inspired a Generation of Scientists

I didn’t grow up as one of those kids captivated by outer space, but probably only because I hadn’t yet seen Cosmos. Subtitled A Personal Voyage, the thirteen-part program, first broadcast on PBS in 1980 and still their most widely-watched series, introduced viewers of all ages to Carl Sagan, the astronomer, astrophysicist, and cosmologist who came […]

Carl Sagan’s Original Cosmos Series on YouTube: The 1980 Show That Inspired a Generation of Scientists is a post from: Open Culture. Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus, or get our Daily Email. And don’t miss our big collections of Free Online Courses, Free Online Movies, Free eBooksFree Audio Books, Free Foreign Language Lessons, and MOOCs.

The post Carl Sagan’s Original Cosmos Series on YouTube: The 1980 Show That Inspired a Generation of Scientists appeared first on Open Culture.

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Twitter to take a second shot at music service, report claims

Despite things failing to work out for Twitter with its #Music app, the company appears determined to make a go of it in the music space, with a report Wednesday suggesting the company will launch a new strategy in the coming days.

The post Twitter to take a second shot at music service, report claims appeared first on Digital Trends.

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Adding fluoride to water does prevent tooth decay

“Consider mass fluoridation of water, says health body," BBC News reports.

The news follows study by Public Health England providing compelling evidence that fluoridation of mains water is a safe and effective way of preventing tooth decay.

Fluoridation has been morally and ethically controversial in some quarters and has raised health concerns because it affects the water supply distributed to every home in an area and so is “unavoidable”.

Public Health England carried out the research into the impact of adding fluoride to the water supply to assess the benefits and address some of the health concerns.

The research found benefits for children’s dental health, which could in turn take pressure off NHS services.

 

What is fluoride?

Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral found in water in varying amounts, depending on which area of the UK you live in. It’s also found in certain foods and drinks, including tea and fish.

Fluoride’s can help reduce the risk of tooth decay (where the outer layers of teeth become damaged by acids), which is why it’s added to many brands of toothpaste.

 

What did the report involve?

England provides a unique “test-bed” to study the effects of fluoride. This is because unlike many other developed nations, there has been no mass fluoridation of water at a national level.
Instead, individual local authorities have chosen whether they want to add fluoride to the water supply.

For example, people in Birmingham have received a fluoridated water supply for many years, while Greater Manchester’s water supply is unfluoridated.

In its report, Public Health England compared a series of health outcomes between “fluoridated” and “unfluoridated” local authorities.

 

What were the key findings?

The key findings of the report (PDF, 1.5Mb) were:

  • there were 15% fewer five-year olds with tooth decay in fluoridated areas than non-fluoridated areas
  • there were 11% fewer 12-year olds with tooth decay
  • there were 45% fewer hospital admissions of children aged one to four for tooth decay (mostly for extraction of decayed teeth under a general anaesthetic) in fluoridated areas than non-fluoridated areas

 

Does fluoridation of water pose any risks?

No significant health risks have been detected over many years in large populations who have been provided with a fluoridated water supply.

One of the most compelling pieces of evidence about the safety of fluoridation comes from the US. Around 200 million people have been exposed to a fluoridated water supply for decades and there have been no credible reports of harm.

There is a potential risk that a condition called dental fluorosis can occur, particularly if a child’s teeth are exposed to too much fluoride when they’re developing.

Mild dental fluorosis can be seen as very fine pearly white lines or flecking on the surface of the teeth. Though, aside from changes in appearance, mild dental fluorosis does not cause damage to the teeth.

The report found that around one in 100 children in Newcastle (which has a fluoridated water supply) had a moderate degree of dental fluorosis.

The report concludes “water fluoridation is a safe and effective public health measure.”

 

Edited by NHS Choices. Follow Behind the Headlines on Twitter. Join the Healthy Evidence forum.

Links To The Headlines

Consider mass fluoridation of water, says health body. BBC News, March 25 2014

Government study backs fluoride in water. The Daily Telegraph, March 25 2014

Add fluoride to water to improve British teeth, say Government’s health advisers. The Independent, March 25 2014

Smile! Fluoride in tap water IS safe after all and can even IMPROVE dental health claim scientists. Mail Online, March 25 2014

Links To Science

Public Health England. Water fluoridation – Health monitoring report for England 2014 (PDF 1.53MB). March 2014

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